Press Release
NEW DATA: Pay Gap Costs Women $1.6 Trillion Each Year

New analysis of Census Bureau data shows persistent pay gap with women paid just 78 cents per every dollar that men make

WASHINGTON, D.C. – September 12, 2023 – Today, the National Partnership for Women & Families released new analysis of the pay gap women workers face.

Analyzing recently released Census Bureau data, the National Partnership found that women workers make just 78 cents for every dollar that men make, little changed from the previous year, though earnings declined significantly for both men and women, when inflation is taken into account. The data include all women who worked, whether full- or part-time, as well as those who may have taken time off during the year for illness or to care for a family member. This pay gap costs women $1.6 trillion per year. The analysis shows the persistent gap in pay equity for women workers, influencing Equal Pay Day advocacy for the following year.

“Women are the backbones of their families and our economy, yet the persistent gender-based wage gap makes it significantly harder for them to keep their households afloat,” said Jocelyn Frye, president of the National Partnership for Women & Families. “Businesses, lawmakers and the Administration must do more to close the pay gap, especially the steepest gaps experienced by women of color due in part to a combination of race, ethnic, and gender bias. Achieving real equity for women workers requires critical investments in paid leave, child care, and other supports that improve the lives of working families.”

The wage gap for women overall is $11,450, equivalent to more than a year of child care or more than ten months of rent. The impact on many women of color is even more severe:

  • Latina women workers are paid 52 cents for every dollar white, non-Hispanic men workers are.
  • Black women workers are paid 66 cents for every dollar white, non-Hispanic men workers are.
  • Asian American women workers are paid 89 cents for every dollar white, non-Hispanic men workers are.
  • Compared to white women workers, who are paid 74 cents for every dollar white, non-Hispanic men workers are.

Gender and race discrimination directly and indirectly play a large role in the wage gap. Occupational segregation, including the overrepresentation of women in low wage work, and the lack of workplace policies to support workers’ family, caregiving needs and health needs are additional factors contributing to the country’s pay gap. When women are the leaders of their families and breadwinners for their households – as half of mothers in the U.S. are – families that depend on these paychecks struggle more to provide necessities and to save and invest over time.

For more on the National Partnership for Women & Families work on equal pay and the pay gap, go to

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About the National Partnership for Women & Families

The National Partnership for Women & Families is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocacy group dedicated to promoting fairness in the workplace, reproductive health and rights, access to quality, affordable health care and policies that help all people meet the dual demands of work and family.

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